Control the Control Panel of XP by Files

Control Panel applets and their filenames

Applet

Filename

System Properties

sysdm.cpl

Display Properties

desk.cpl

Network Connections

ncpa.cpl

Accessibility Options

access.cpl

Add or Remove Programs

appwiz.cpl

Add Hardware Wizard

hdwwiz.cpl

Internet Properties

Inetcpl.cpl

Region and Language Options

intl.cpl

Game Controllers

joy.cpl

Mouse Properties

main.cpl

Sound and Audio Devices

mmsys.cpl

User Accounts

nusrmgr.cpl

ODBC Data Source Administrator

odbccp32.cpl

Power Options Properties

Powercfg.cpl

Phone and Modem Options

telephon.cpl

Time and Date Properties

timedate.cpl

Speech Properties

sapi.cpl

How to run the Direct Applet of any control panel item
step 1 Click on Start
Step 2 Click on Run
Step 3 Type any file name i.e sysdm.cpl
pres enter

How to XP's DNS Cache Settings MCSE

Adjust XP's DNS Cache Settings

As a way of speeding up DNS, when you visit a site XP puts the DNS information into a local DNS cache on your PC. So, when you want to go to a site, XP first looks in its local DNS cache, called the resolve cache, to see whether the DNS information is contained there. That way, if it finds the information locally, it doesn't have to query a remote DNS server to find IP information. The cache is made up of recently queried names and entries taken from your HOSTS file.

The cache contains both negative and positive entries. Positive entries are those in which the DNS lookup succeeded, and you were able to connect to the web site. When XP looks in the cache, if it finds a positive entry it immediately uses that DNS information and sends you to the requested web site.

Negative entries are those in which no match was found, and you end up getting a "Cannot find server or DNS" error in your browser. Similarly, when XP looks in the cache and finds a negative entry, it gives you the error message without bothering to go out to the site.

Negative entries can lead to problems. When you try to make a connection to a site that has a negative entry in your cache, you'll get an error message, even if the site's problems have been resolved and it's now reachable.

You can solve this problem, though, using a Registry hack. By default, XP caches negative entries for five minutes. After five minutes, they're cleared from your cache. But if you'd like, you can force XP not to cache these negative entries so that you'll never run into this problem. Run the Registry Editor and go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Dnscache\Parameters. Create a new DWORD value with the name NegativeCacheTime and give it a value of 0. (The value might already exist. If it does, edit its value to 0.) The DWORD determines how much time, in seconds, to keep negative entries in the DNS cache. If you like, you can have the entries stay alive for one second by giving the DWORD a value of 1.

Speed Up Web Access with DNS Hosts File

Speed Up Web Access with a HOSTS File

It takes time to send your request to a DNS server, have the server look up the proper IP address to resolve the name, and then send the IP address back to your PC. You can eliminate that delay by creating or editing a local HOSTS file on your own PC that contains hostnames and their corresponding IP addresses. When you create a HOSTS file, XP will first look in that to see if there's an entry for the hostname, and if it finds it, it will resolve the address itself. That way, you won't have to go out to a DNS server and wait for the response before visiting a web site. The HOSTS file is a plain-text file you can create or edit with a text editor like Notepad.

You'll find an existing HOSTS file in C:\Windows\System32\Drivers\Etc\HOSTS (in Windows XP Professional, it's located in C:\Winnt\System32\Drivers\HOSTS). The file has no extension; it is named only HOSTS. Open it in Notepad and enter the IP addresses and hostnames of your commonly visited web sites, like this:

208.201.239.37       oreilly.com
216.92131.107 simtel.net

Each entry in the file should be on one line. The IP address should be in the first column, and the corresponding hostname in the next column. At least one space should separate the two columns. You can add comments to the file by preceding the line with a #, in which case the entire line will be ignored by the file, or by putting a # after the hostname, in which case only the comment after will be ignored. You might want to comment on individual entriesfor example:

130.94.155.164              gralla.com    #still in beta

Concept and Accounting Policies ACCA B.com

KEY CONCEPT AND ACCOUNTING POLICIES

To ensure the matching of expenditure against appropriations, the cash basis of accounting has been modified to recognize some items of expenditure on a commitment basis.

Commitments are used to control large and non-regular expenditures against appropriation and need not be recorded for immaterial expenditure of recurring nature. Commitments will be accounted for on a memorandum basis.

The following criteria shall be applied when determining and recognizing a commitment.

· a valid purchase order is raised and where applicable, a purchase contract (legal undertaking or legally binding) has been entered with the supplier. The amounts involved should be clearly mentioned in the purchase order / contract.

· the officer in accordance with the Delegation of Finance Powers (who shall deemed to be the approving officer) has authorized the commitment.

· the amount involved (expenditure) is above Rs. 100,00 or 10% of total budget head, whichever is higher.

Old Sys Vs New Accounting Basis of Accounting

OLD SYSTEM VS NEW ACCOUNTING MODEL

Basis of Accounting

§ Cash basis of Accounting

§ Receipts are recorded on the basis of actual collections

§ Expenses are recorded when the payment is made

§ Uses mainly single entry bookkeeping

§ Modified Cash Basis of Accounting

§ Receipts are recorded on the basis of actual collections

§ Expenses are recorded when the payment is made PLUS

§ Commitments are recorded

§ Fixed Assets Register is maintained

Financial Reporting

§ Current reporting does not incorporate principles of

§ Current reporting shall incorporate these principles of

§ Quality

§ accuracy

§ validity

§ completeness

§ comparability

§ timeliness

§ Quality

§ accuracy

§ validity

§ completeness

§ comparability

§ Timeliness

Financial Reporting

§ Expense and revenue figures were not reported “By Object”

§ No Programs and Projects

§ Fixed Assets were not reported separately

§ Disclosures relating to National Debt were inadequate

§ Comparison to budget wise limited and not meaningful

§ AG/AGPR/CGA to provide quality and timely information

§ AG/AGPR/CGA will provide FD/Departments information that is useful for the purposes of preparing Annual Budget Statements (ABS) and for monitoring performance against budgets

§ AG/AGPR/CGA will give country’s “Financial Management” information to assist in their financial management

Why the PIFRA Launched Financial Reporting

PROJECT FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FINANCIAL

REPORTING AND AUDIT

Why the PIFRA Launched:

The Donor Agencies like World Bank (WB) and International Monitory Fund (IMF) wishes to know that whether the loans given in any country has been utilized properly or not and that whether they will bring fruits as it was expected. Due to the old and manual system of accounting 1994 the Government of Pakistan (GOP) failed to provide the correct accounts to the Donor Agencies which was noticed by them and required to improve the system of Accounting Audit and Financial Reporting.

On the instructions of the Donors the Government of Pakistan is bringing many reforms such as Judicial Reforms and Financial Reforms. PIFRA is a part of the Financial Reforms.

BACKGROUND

· This Project was Launched in 1996 with the collocation of IDA Assistance (World Bank) for the Improvement of Core Financial Information Systems in the GOP.

· Its total Funding US$ 37.174 million (IDA US$ 28.8 Million) and the rest Rs. (37.174-28.800 = 8.374 Million) is being contributed by Government of Pakistan (GOP).

COMPONENTS PIFRA

The main components of PIFRA Project are as under:-

· Government Accounting and Financial Reporting (GAFR)

· Change management & Human Resource

· Training

· Auditing

· Administration

· Other Policy Support

OBJECTIVES OF PIFRA

Following are the main objectives of PIFRA: -

· Adopt and implement best business practices

· Modernize Government Audit procedures

· Adoption of Internationally accepted Accounting and Auditing standards

· Improved Financial Accounting and Information systems

· Tighter internal controls

· Build staff capabilities

COURSE APPLICABLE TO

· Centralized Accounting Entities

· Self Accounting Entities

· Exempt Accounting Entities

(a) Centralized Accounting Entities

A centralized accounting entity is any accounting entity for whom the Accountant General has primary responsibility for the transaction processing, recording and reporting functions of that entity. At no stage does this arrangement absolve the Principal Accounting Officer of his/her responsibilities for financial management.

(b) Self Accounting Entities

A self-accounting entity is any accounting entity for whom the Principal Accounting Officer has primary responsibility for the accounting and reporting functions.

(C) Exempt Accounting Entities

These include independent entities and commercial undertakings and entities established under a state resolution or a notification of the Government or under Companies Ordinance, but placed administratively under a Ministry of Division for the purpose of accountability.


Account Abbreviations ACCA B.com ICOM dcom

ABBREVIATIONS

NAM

New Accounting Model

PIFRA

Project for Improvement of Financial Reporting and Auditing

FABS

Financial and Budgeting System

FAA

Financial Administration and Accounting

AGP

Auditor General of Pakistan

AGPR

Accountant General of Pakistan Revenues

APPM

Accounting Policies and procedures Manual

CBR

Central Board of Revenue

CG

Comptroller General

CMA

Consolidated Monthly Accounts

COA

Chart of Accounts

CQA

Chart of Accounts

DAO

District Accounts Office / Officer

DDO

Drawing and Disbursing Officer

DGPR

Director General Pakistan Revenues

EAD

Economic Affairs Division

FRM

Financial Reporting Manual

IAS

International Accounting Standards

GAAP

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

GPS

Government Financial Statistics

GOP

Government of Pakistan

MAP

Manual of Accounting Principles

MDB

Main Designated Branch

MDMBS

Monthly Designated Main Branch Statement

MOF

Ministry of Finance

NBP

National Bank of Pakistan

NIS

New items statement

PAO

Principal Accounting Officer

PAC

Public Accounts committee

PAD

Pakistan Audit Department

SAE

Schedule of Authorized Expenditure

SE

Self-Accounting Entity

SBP

State Bank of Pakistan