CARE IN LAYING & JOINTING OF UNDERGROUND CABLES

CARE IN LAYING & JOINTING OF UNDERGROUND CABLES

1. It has been observed that the construction staff, in laying and jointing of the cable, is not exercising the sufficient care. Instances have come to the notice of the Director General of major breakdowns of cables have been caused by bad workmanship during cable laying. It is, therefore, of utmost importance that all construction officers and staff take due precautions and personal care while laying and jointing cables. The maintenance divisions must also take proper acceptance tests before taking over the cable work and bringing them into commission. All instances of defective construction work and unsatisfactory test must be brought to the notice of the higher authorities in due time.
2. The following points must be strictly observed.
i) The cable drums must be carefully handled at the store yard as well as at the sites of the work. For ensuring careful loading in and unloading from railway wagons and trucks by the construction staff during primary and local distribution, operation must be carried out under the supervision of construction officers or engineering supervisors. In no circumstances shall the drums be dropped from any height even if it is small. The usual methods to be employed for loading or unloading of cable drums.
a)Use of a crane.
b)Use of slopping planks between loading board of the truck and the road surface.
c) aking temporary ramp at site.
ii)In almost all the towns it is necessary to lay the cable in the trench by pulling along the run of the trench. While slight dragging in the trench permissible in the case of armored heavy cables, it must be borne in mind that unarmored cable shall never be dragged, as otherwise while doing so the sheath is liable to be damaged. Sufficient labor force should be engaged for paying out the cable without much strain being felt by the sheath or the conductors inside. When cables of large sizes are laid pulling long pieces may not be feasible and therefore ‘flexing’ may be resorted to i.e. cables are laid out on the road in the form of large loops and then pulled along the trench eliminating the curves one by one. This process requires very close attention especially when the loops narrow down, otherwise the cable may get kink and unperceived fractures, which show up later in the form of incipient faults, may develop. Responsible staff or trained labor must therefore be stationed at the curves to ensure that the diameter of the loops is kept within limits. The radius of any bend less than 3 shall not be permitted. An arrangement is being made to procure ‘cable rollers’, which will obviate any possible necessity of dragging or flexing. Till such time the rollers are made available and special pre-cautions shall be taken to prevent rough handling during ‘flexing’ or pulling.
(iii) After a cable has been laid 6” of soft earth should be filled. Shingles or gritty soil should be avoided, as these tend to damage the cable ‘sheath’.
(iv) While refilling cable trench, the refilled soil must be rammed thoroughly in repeated layers of 6” each, till the surface of the road is reached. It usually takes one man to ram the soil of the trench refilled by extra six persons.
(v) While drawing cables in conduits the open end of the cable where cable grip is to be attached must be nicely dressed down so that the tension of the grip applies firmly to the rigid body comprising of the core and the sheathing. If the sheathing is loosely covering the core, as in the case of an undressed end, there is the possibility of the sheathing getting fractured or in worse cases even getting pulled off under force.
(vi) Ends of cable section on the drum in the laid section at jointing points and in manholes must be ‘sealed’ immediately after cutting the cable. The practice of leaving the open ends unsealed is greatly responsible for undermining the general insulation of the core.
(vii) All junction cables and main cables must be tested with pressure (dry carbon di-oxide gas) at a pressure of 10 pounds for a sustained period of 12-24 hours before being laid. The overall length of the cable must again be similarly tested immediately after the sections have been jointed. Any leakage discovered must be traced and rectified.
(viii) Insulation resistance of all junctions and main cables must be tested after jointing the complete lengths of the cable. In making insulation tests the limit of 5,000 Mega Ohm per mile for local cables and 10,000 Mega Ohm per mile for junction cables must be attained after applying the temperature correction. Temperature correction in terms of Multiplier constant is given below:
(ix) All cable joints must be tested for leakage by using “DESICCATOR PUMPS” for introducing dry air in the joints and testing for leakage by applying soapsuds over the surface of the cable.
(x) In the case of directly buried cables the joint must be laid ‘solid’ in bitumen.
(xi) In the case of protected cables laid through ducts the joints must rest properly over cable bearers so that the load is borne by cable tails and not by the jointing sleeve.
(xii) Under no circumstances must be plumbers metal as supplied, be adulterated with lead or tin, as these tends to weaken the metal, which subsequently develops cracks. “Obvious cases of supply of bad plumbers metal must be specially dealt with. The plumbers metal must be withdrawn from use and report submitted to the Director General for further necessary action.”

Web Directories

Before joining the web directories you have to focus your business objective & marketing strategy. When you search what is the marketing media for your business promotion. First of all look at web directories. If you choose web directories you will get better result instead of other marketing media’s.


Web Directories is changing the face of marketing. Web Directories enabled the open dialogue between companies and consumers. Before engaging in web directories companies need to explore the various options available and decide which methods will likely have the greatest impact on their target audience.

Things need when you build new web directory
1. Web Directory Design & Layout
2. Keyword Research
3. Link Building

Web directories are kind of relationship marketing, relationship marketing Acquiring, Maintaining and Retaining Customers. Web directory is the example of business Marketing Relationships (BMR).

Web directories are the best sources to combine the different type of business under one roof. Jasminedirectory.com, Maxdirectory.eu, Yahoo web directories and Twd Web Directory are the example of this roof. Choose the web directory which have variety of business category and also have many links. If you want to promote your business on national (Country Level) choose the same country web directory like you live in Pakistan than use HamariWeb Directory.


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Motorola Mobiles Codes

Motorola Codes:

Motorola 920---------------
Press menu and type one of these numbers and press OK:
11 = Status Review13 = Available Networks14 = Preferred Networks22 = Select Keypad Tones25 = Require SIM Card PIN26 = Language Selection32 = Repetitive Timer33 = Single Alert Timer34 = Set IN-Call Display35 = Show Call Timers36 = Show Call Charges37 = Call Charge Settings38 = Reset All Timers43 = Reset All Timers45 = Show Last Call46 = Total For All Calls47 = Lifetime Timer51 = Change Unlock Code52 = Master Reset53 = Master Clear (Warning!! May result in deleting the Message Editor!!!)54 = New Security Code55 = Automatic Lock63 = Battery Saving Mode
Free call tip
1 Enter the phone number2 Enter OK3 Type *#06#4 Press Button C5 And finally press the button for power off.
You should now be able to talk without being billed.
The 54# Tip:
Type 1#, 2#........54# on the keypad (when you're not in the menu) to get the phone number used for with this key when speed dialing.


Motorola 930--------------
Press menu and type one of these numbers and press OK:
11 = Status Review13 = Available Networks14 = Preferred Networks22 = Select Keypad Tones25 = Require SIM Card PIN26 = Language Selection32 = Repetitive Timer33 = Single Alert Timer34 = Set IN-Call Display35 = Show Call Timers36 = Show Call Charges37 = Call Charge Settings38 = Reset All Timers43 = Reset All Timers45 = Show Last Call46 = Total For All Calls47 = Lifetime Timer51 = Change Unlock Code52 = Master Reset53 = Master Clear (Warning!! May result in deleting the Message Editor!!!)54 = New Security Code55 = Automatic Lock63 = Battery Saving Mode
Free call tip
1 Enter the phone number2 Enter OK3 Type *#06#4 Press Button C5 And finally press the button for power off.
You should now be able to talk without being billed.
Motorola 930
The 54# Tip:
Type 1#, 2#........54# on the keypad (when you're not in the menu) to get the phone number used for with this key when speed dialing.


Motorola 6200--------------

(Note: pause means the * key held in until box appears)To activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 1 [pause] [ok]You now have to press the [MENU] and scroll to the 'EngField Options' function with the keys, and enable it.
De-activate RBS
To de-activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 0 [pause] [ok]This only works with some versions of software.
These countries has been reported working:
UK (Orange)AU
What's the use of RBS:
Get Distance From Base Station - Place a call, when itis answered, press [MENU] until 'Eng Field Option' isdisplayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell', press [OK],press [MENU] until 'Time Adv xxx' appears, where xxx isa number. Multiply this number by 550, and the result isthe distance from the RBS (Radio Base Station), inmeters.
Get Signal Quality - press [MENU] until 'Eng FieldOption' is displayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell',press [OK], press [MENU] until 'C1' appears. This is thesignal quality. If it becomes negative for longer than 5seconds, a new cell is selected.
Pin Outs
Numbered left to right, keypad up, battery down
1. Audio Ground2. V+3. True data (TD) (input)4. Downlink - Complimentary data (CD) (input)5. Uplink - Return data (RD) (output)6. GND7. Audio Out - on/off8. Audio In9. Manual Test - ???10. Battery Feedback11. Antenna connector


Motorola 7500-------------

(Note: pause means the * key held in until box appears)To activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 1 [pause] [ok]You now have to press the [MENU] and scroll to the 'EngField Options' function with the keys, and enable it.
De-activate RBS
To de-activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 0 [pause] [ok]This only works with some versions of software.
These countries has been reported working:
IT (model: F16 HW: 5.2 SW: 2.1)
What's the use of RBS:
Get Distance From Base Station - Place a call, when itis answered, press [MENU] until 'Eng Field Option' isdisplayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell', press [OK],press [MENU] until 'Time Adv xxx' appears, where xxx isa number. Multiply this number by 550, and the result isthe distance from the RBS (Radio Base Station), inmeters.
Get Signal Quality - press [MENU] until 'Eng FieldOption' is displayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell',press [OK], press [MENU] until 'C1' appears. This is thesignal quality. If it becomes negative for longer than 5seconds, a new cell is selected.
Pin OutsNumbered right to left, keypad up, battery down looking
1. Gnd2. Pos3. True data (TD) (input)4. Complimentary data (CD) (input)5. Return data (RD) (output)6. Audio gnd7. Audio out8. Audioin

Motorola 8200--------------

(Note: pause means the * key held in until box appears)To activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 1 [pause] [ok]You now have to press the [MENU] and scroll to the 'EngField Options' function with the keys, and enable it.
De-activate RBS
To de-activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 0 [pause] [ok]This only works with some versions of software.
These countries has been reported working:
ES, AU, NL, BE
What's the use of RBS:
Get Distance From Base Station - Place a call, when itis answered, press [MENU] until 'Eng Field Option' isdisplayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell', press [OK],press [MENU] until 'Time Adv xxx' appears, where xxx isa number. Multiply this number by 550, and the result isthe distance from the RBS (Radio Base Station), inmeters.
Get Signal Quality - press [MENU] until 'Eng FieldOption' is displayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell',press [OK], press [MENU] until 'C1' appears. This is thesignal quality. If it becomes negative for longer than 5seconds, a new cell is selected.
Pin Outs
Numbered right to left, keypad up, battery down looking
1. Audio Ground2. V+3. True data (TD) (input)4. Downlink - Complimentary data (CD) (input)5. Uplink - Return data (RD) (output)6. GND7. Audio Out - on/off8. Audio In9. Manual Test - ???10. Battery Feedback11. Antenna connector


Motorola 8400-------------

(Note: pause means the * key held in until box appears)To activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 1 [pause] [ok]You now have to press the [MENU] and scroll to the 'EngField Options' function with the keys, and enable it.
De-activate RBS
To de-activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 0 [pause] [ok]This only works with some versions of software.
These countries has been reported working:
ES, AU, NL, BE
What's the use of RBS:
Get Distance From Base Station - Place a call, when itis answered, press [MENU] until 'Eng Field Option' isdisplayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell', press [OK],press [MENU] until 'Time Adv xxx' appears, where xxx isa number. Multiply this number by 550, and the result isthe distance from the RBS (Radio Base Station), inmeters.
Get Signal Quality - press [MENU] until 'Eng FieldOption' is displayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell',press [OK], press [MENU] until 'C1' appears. This is thesignal quality. If it becomes negative for longer than 5seconds, a new cell is selected.
Pin Outs
Numbered right to left, keypad up, battery down looking
1. Audio Ground2. V+3. True data (TD) (input)4. Downlink - Complimentary data (CD) (input)5. Uplink - Return data (RD) (output)6. GND7. Audio Out - on/off8. Audio In9. Manual Test - ???10. Battery Feedback11. Antenna connector


Motorola 8700--------------

*#06# for checking the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)
Activate RBS
(Note: pause means the * key held in until box appears)To activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 1 [pause] [ok]You now have to press the [MENU] and scroll to the 'EngField Options' function with the keys, and enable it.
De-activate RBS
To de-activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 0 [pause] [ok]This only works with some versions of software.
These countries has been reported working:
AU, IT, SG, DE, ES, ZA
What's the use of RBS:
Get Distance From Base Station - Place a call, when itis answered, press [MENU] until 'Eng Field Option' isdisplayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell', press [OK],press [MENU] until 'Time Adv xxx' appears, where xxx isa number. Multiply this number by 550, and the result isthe distance from the RBS (Radio Base Station), inmeters.
Get Signal Quality - press [MENU] until 'Eng FieldOption' is displayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell',press [OK], press [MENU] until 'C1' appears. This is thesignal quality. If it becomes negative for longer than 5seconds, a new cell is selected.


Motorola CD 160---------------

Press menu and type one of these numbers and press OK:
11 = Status Review13 = Available Networks14 = Preferred Networks22 = Select Keypad Tones25 = Require SIM Card PIN26 = Language Selection32 = Repetitive Timer33 = Single Alert Timer34 = Set IN-Call Display35 = Show Call Timers36 = Show Call Charges37 = Call Charge Settings38 = Reset All Timers43 = Reset All Timers45 = Show Last Call46 = Total For All Calls47 = Lifetime Timer51 = Change Unlock Code52 = Master Reset53 = Master Clear (Warning!! May result in deleting the Message Editor!!!)54 = New Security Code55 = Automatic Lock63 = Battery Saving Mode
Free call tip
1 Enter the phone number2 Enter OK3 Type *#06#4 Press Button C5 And finally press the button for power off.
You should now be able to talk without being billed.


Motorola CD 520----------------

Press menu and type one of these numbers and press OK:
11 = Status Review13 = Available Networks14 = Preferred Networks22 = Select Keypad Tones25 = Require SIM Card PIN26 = Language Selection32 = Repetitive Timer33 = Single Alert Timer34 = Set IN-Call Display35 = Show Call Timers36 = Show Call Charges37 = Call Charge Settings38 = Reset All Timers43 = Reset All Timers45 = Show Last Call46 = Total For All Calls47 = Lifetime Timer51 = Change Unlock Code52 = Master Reset53 = Master Clear (Warning!! May result in deleting the Message Editor!!!)54 = New Security Code55 = Automatic Lock63 = Battery Saving Mode
Free call tip
1 Enter the phone number2 Enter OK3 Type *#06#4 Press Button C5 And finally press the button for power off.
You should now be able to talk without being billed.


Motorola d460--------------

#06# for checking the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)
Activate RBS
(Note: pause means the * key held in until box appears)To activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 1 [pause] [ok]You now have to press the [MENU] and scroll to the 'EngField Options' function with the keys, and enable it.
De-activate RBS
To de-activate RBS type: [pause] [pause] [pause] 1 1 3[pause] 0 [pause] [ok]This only works with some versions of software.
What's the use of RBS:
Get Distance From Base Station - Place a call, when itis answered, press [MENU] until 'Eng Field Option' isdisplayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell', press [OK],press [MENU] until 'Time Adv xxx' appears, where xxx isa number. Multiply this number by 550, and the result isthe distance from the RBS (Radio Base Station), inmeters.
Get Signal Quality - press [MENU] until 'Eng FieldOption' is displayed, press [OK], select 'Active Cell',press [OK], press [MENU] until 'C1' appears. This is thesignal quality. If it becomes negative for longer than 5seconds, a new cell is selected.


Motorola V3688---------------

#06# for checking the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)
Enhanced Full Rate Codec (EFR):
To Enable EFR press [][][] 119 [] 1 [] OK.To Disable EFR press [][][] 119 [] 0 [] OK
NOTE: Nothing appears on Screen.

Secret Codes Of All Nokia Mobiles Models

Secret Codes Of Nokia Mobiles:
Below we present secret codes of nokia mobile phones which are very useful for people who unlock phones and for amateurs of this topic. These special key sequences entered fromkeyboard of phone allow you to get some important information like IMEI number, release date, software version and much more. You can also choose default language, activatenetmonitor ect.

1610/1630
*#170602112302# (software version)
1610/1611
IMEI number: -*# 0 6 #Software version: -* # 1 7 0 6 0 2 1 1 2 3 9 2 #Simlock status: - # 9 2 7 0 2 6 8 9 #
2110
*#9999# (software version)
2110i/2110e
*#170602112302# or (depends on model)*#682371158412125# (software version)

NOKIA3110
*#06# -IMEI
*#3110# -Software version
##002# - allows to turn off voice mail.
*#7780# - restore factory settings
*#746025625#(or *#sim0clock#) - to check if clock of sim (SIM-Clock) can be stopped (SIM-Clock-stop is akind of standby mode which saces battery)
*#92702689# (or *#war0anty#) -"warranty code:"- you have to enter one of the following codes:
6232 (OK)displays month and year of production date (ie "0198")
7332 (OK) - displays date of last repair - if there is (ie. "DATE NOT SAVED")
7832 (OK) - displays date of purchase - if there is (ie. "DATE NOT SAVED")
9268 (OK) -displays serial number
37832 (OK) -sets purchase date in format MMYY (MM - month, YY - year)- attention: you can set it only once, so beware !
87267 (OK)-displays message "Confirm Transfer?" - meaning is unknown (?)
* # 9 2 7 0 2 6 8 9 # -Simlock info
*#31# (call) -sets if your phone no. will be hidden or not (works only in some networks)
*#76# (call) -sets if target phone number when you call should be displayed (works only in some networks)
*#77# (call) -(work s only in some networks)
*#33/35# (call -displays message "Service not active".
**31# (call) -your no. will not be showed to others when you make a call

3210
*#06# -IMEI
*#0000# -software version
*#92702689# (or *#war0anty#)- enters service mode.
*3370# -Turns on sound encoding system - Enhanced Full Rate.
#3370# -Turns off sound encoding system Enhanced Full Rate .
*4720# -Turns on battery save mode - saves about 30 % of energy.
#4720# -Turns off battery save mode.
xx# -Replace xx with desired phonebook entry - press # and you will see it on display.

51XX
*#06# -IMEI
*#0000# - Software version
*#92702689#( or *#war0anty#) Enter service mode.
*3370# -Turns on sound encoding system - Enhanced Full Rate.
#3370# -Turns off sound encoding system - Enhanced Full Rate.
*4720# -Turns on battery save mode - saves about 30 % of energy.
#4720# -Turns off battery save mode.
#pw+1234567890+1 -provider lock status
#pw+1234567890+2 -Network lock status
#pw+1234567890+3 -Provider lock status
#pw+1234567890+4 - SimCard lock status

NOKIA 61XX
*#06# -IMEI
*#0000# ;-*#99 99# (Nokia 6130)
*#92702689# (or *#war0anty#) Software versionEnter service mode.
*3370# -Turns on sound encoding system - Enhanced Full Rate.
#3370# -Turns off sound encoding system - Enhanced Full Rate.
*4720# -Turns on battery save mode - saves about 30 % of energy.
#4720# -Turns off battery save mode.

NOKIA8810
*#06# - IMEI
*#0000# -Software version
*#92702689# (or *#war0anty#) Enter service mode.
*3370# -Turns on sound encoding system - Enhanced Full Rate.
#3370# -Turns off sound encoding system - Enhanced Full Rate.
*4720# -Turns on battery save mode - saves about 30 % of energy
#4720# -Turns off battery save mode - saves about 30 % of energy

NOKIA99OO
*#06# -IMEI
*#682371158412125# -Software version
*#3283# -Displays week and year of manufacture, ie. 1497 means 14th week of 1997.

NOKIA 911O
*#06# IMEI
*#0000# SOFTWARE VERSION
*3370# Turns on sound encoding system - Enhanced Full Rate.
#3370# Turns off sound encoding system - Enhanced Full Rate.
*4720# Turns on battery save mode - saves about 30 % of energy.
#4720# Turns off battery save mode.

NOKIA 81XX
*#06# IMEI*#8110# Software versionxx# Replace xx with desired phonebook entry - press # and you will see it on display
*#92702689# (or *#warOanty#)
"Warranty code:" - you have to enter one of the following codes:
9268 (OK) displays IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identification)
6232 (OK) displays date of manufacture in format MMYY (MM - month, RR - year)
7832 (OK) displays date of purchase
7332 (OK) displays date of repair or upgrade
37832 (OK) sets date of purchase in format MMYY (MM - month, RR - year) - attention: you can set it only once, so beware !!!
87267 (OK) transmits user data/move data do service PC

How to Creat a Strong Password

Creating Strong Passwords
When creating a password, it is a good idea to follow these guidelines:
Do Not Do the Following:
. Do Not Use Only Words or Numbers . You should never use solely numbers or words in a
password.
Some examples include the following:
. 8675309
. juan
. hackme
. Do Not Use Recognizable Words . Words such as proper names, dictionary words, or even
terms from television shows or novels should be avoided, even if they are bookended with
numbers.
. john1
. DS-9
. mentat123
. Do Not Use Words in Foreign Languages .Password cracking programs often check against
word lists that encompass dictionaries of many languages. Relying on foreign languages for
secure passwords is of little use.
Some examples include the following:
. cheguevara
. bienvenido1
. 1dumbKopf
. Do Not Use Hacker Terminology . If you think you are elite because you use hacker terminology
. also called l337 (LEET) speak . in your password, think again. Many word lists
include LEET speak.
Some examples include the following:
. H4X0R
. 1337
. Do Not Use Personal Information .Steer clear of personal information. If the attacker knows
who you are, they will have an easier time guring out your password if it includes information
such as:
. Your name
. The names of pets
. The names of family members
. Any birth dates
. Your phone number or zip code
. Do Not Invert Recognizable Words . Good password checkers always reverse common
words, so inverting a bad password does not make it any more secure.
Some examples include the following:
. R0X4H
. nauj
. 9-DS
. Do Not Write Down Your Password . Never store your password on paper. It is much safer
to memorize it.
. Do Not Use the Same Password For All Machines . It is important that you make separate
passwords for each machine. This way if one system is compromised, all of your machines
will not be immediately at risk.
Do the Following:
. Make the Password At Least Eight Characters Long . The longer the password is, the better.
If you are using MD5 passwords, it should be 15 characters long or longer. With DES
passwords, use the maximum length . eight characters.
. Mix Upper and Lower Case Letters . Red Hat Linux is case sensitive, so by mixing cases,
you will enhance the strength of the password.
. Mix Letters and Numbers . Adding numbers to passwords, especially when added to the
middle (not just at the beginning or the end), can enhance password strength.
. Include Non-Alphanumeric Characters . Special characters such as &, $, and 􀀀 can greatly
improve the strength of a password.
. Pick a Password You Can Remember . The best password in the world does you little good
if you cannot remember it. So use acronyms or other mnemonic devices to aid in memorizing
passwords.
With all these rules, it may seem difcult to create a password meeting all of the criteria for good
passwords while avoiding the traits of a bad one. Fortunately, there are some simple steps one can
take to generate a memorable, secure password.

How work web directories and web site submission

Web directories are kind of relationship marketing, relationship marketing Acquiring, Maintaining and Retaining Customers. Web directory is the example of business Marketing Relationships (BMR).

Before joining the web directories you have to focus your business objective & marketing strategy. When you search what is the marketing media for your business promotion. First of all look at web directories. If you choose web directories you will get better result instead of other marketing media’s.

Web Directories is changing the face of marketing. Web Directories enabled the open dialogue between companies and consumers. Before engaging in web directories companies need to explore the various options available and decide which methods will likely have the greatest impact on their target audience.

Web Directories Focus on following:-

Marketing
Advertising
Sales

Marketing: The systematic planning, implementation and control of a mix of business activities intended to bring together buyers and sellers for the mutually advantageous exchange or transfer of products.
Advertising: The paid, public, non-personal announcement of a persuasive message by an identified sponsor; the non-personal presentation or promotion by a firm of its products to its existing and potential customers.
Sales: The sales process is everything that you do to close the sale and get a signed agreement or contract. The sales process consists of interpersonal interaction. It is often done by a one-on-one meeting, cold calls, and networking. It's anything that engages you with the prospect or customer on a personal level rather than at a distance. Advertising and marketing lay the ground work to warm up the lead
There is many types of web directories working on internet word. We can distribute web directories in three different parts.

a. Business Web Directors
b. Web Directory
c. SEO friendly web directory
I found a Jasminedirectory.com have all the factors and touch all the field of life. Jasmine directories will improve your Business, product and name of your country in the business word.

How to submit web site to web directories or search engines?

When you have web site and your web site have full enough information about your products then you have to promote your product. The one and easy way to promote you web site on internet is submitting the web site to different business directories, different search engines and write about your business on different blogs.

We suggest you to don’t you fill the fake information when you are going go submit your web info or business info to search engines or web directories. First you have only one business email and use same email address for every submission and use same email for when you submit the web site. Second important thing is write a brief information which express your business description. Third, use the same contact name for each submission.

How did Computer Security Come about?


How did Computer Security Come about?
Many readers may recall the movie "Wargames", starring Matthew Broderick in his portrayal of a high school student that breaks into the United States Department of Defense (DOD) supercomputer and inadvertently causes a nuclear war threat. In this movie, Broderick uses his modem to dial into the DOD computer (called WOPR) and plays games with the articially intelligent software controlling all of the nuclear missile silos. The movie was released during the "cold war" between the former Soviet Union and the United States, and was considered a success in its theatrical release in 1983.

The popularity of the movie inspired many individuals and groups to begin implementing some of the methods that the young protagonist used to crack restricted systems, including what is known as war dialing . a method of searching phone numbers for analog modem connections in an dened area code and phone prex combination.

More than 10 years later, after a four-year, multi-jurisdictional pursuit involving the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the aid of computer professionals across the country, infamous computer cracker Kevin Mitnick was arrested and charged with 25 counts of computer and access device fraud that resulted in an estimated US$80 Million in losses of intellectual property and source code from Nokia, NEC, Sun Microsystems, Novell, Fujitsu, and Motorola. At the time, the FBI considered it the largest single computer-related criminal offense in U.S. history. He was convicted and sentenced to a combined 68 months in prison for his crimes, of which he served 60 months before his parole on January 21, 2000. He has been further barred from using computers or doing any computer-related consulting until 2003. Investigators say that Mitnick was an expert in social engineering . using human beings to gain access to passwords and systems using falsied credentials.

the way they handle information transmission and disclosure. The popularity of the Internet was one of the most important developments that prompted an intensied effort in data security.
An ever-growing number of people are using their personal computers to gain access to the resources that the Internet has to offer. From research and information retrieval to electronic mail and commerce transaction, the Internet has been regarded as one of the most important developments of the 20th century.

The Internet and its earlier protocols, however, were developed as a trust-based system. That is, the Internet Protocol was not designed to be secure in itself. There are no approved security standards built into the TCP/IP communications stack, leaving it open to potentially malicious users and processes across the network. Modern developments have made Internet communication more secure, but there are still several incidents that gain national attention and alert us to the fact that nothing is completely safe.

Information security has evolved over the years due to the increasing reliance on public networks to disclose personal, nancial, and other restricted information. There are numerous instances such as the Mitnick and the Vladamir Levin case that prompted organizations across all industries to rethink


the way they handle information transmission and disclosure. The popularity of the Internet was one of the most important developments that prompted an intensied effort in data security.
An ever-growing number of people are using their personal computers to gain access to the resources that the Internet has to offer. From research and information retrieval to electronic mail and commerce transaction, the Internet has been regarded as one of the most important developments of the 20th century.
The Internet and its earlier protocols, however, were developed as a trust-based system. That is, the Internet Protocol was not designed to be secure in itself. There are no approved security standards built into the TCP/IP communications stack, leaving it open to potentially malicious users and processes across the network. Modern developments have made Internet communication more secure, but there are still several incidents that gain national attention and alert us to the fact that nothing is completely safe.

What is Computer Security?


What is Computer Security?
Computer security is a general term that covers a wide area of computing and information processing. Industries that depend on computer systems and networks to conduct daily business transactions and access crucial information regard their data as an important part of their overall assets. Several terms and metrics have entered our daily business lives, such as total cost of ownership (TCO) and quality of service (QoS). In those metrics, industries calculate aspects such as data integrity and high-availability as part of their planning and process management costs. In some industries, such as electronic commerce, the availability and trustworthiness of data can be the difference between success and failure.