Mobile Tips & Tricks Nokia Mobile Tricks

This Nokia code activates Enhanced Full Rate Codec (EFR) - Your Nokia cell phone uses the best sound quality but talk time is reduced my approx. 5%

Deactivate Enhanced Full Rate Codec (EFR)

Activate Half Rate Codec - Your phone uses a lower quality sound but you should gain approx 30% more Talk Time

With this Nokia code you can deactivate the Half Rate Codec

Displays your phones software version, 1st Line : Software Version, 2nd Line : Software Release Date, 3rd Line : Compression Type

Phones software version if *#0000# does not work

For checking the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI Number)

Provider Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)

Network Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)

Country Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)

SIM Card Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)

This lets you know who called you last (Only vodofone)

Last call (Only vodofone)

This phone code allows you to check the number that "All Calls" are diverted to

Displays phone security code in use

Lets you see the private number

Allows you to check the "Call Waiting" status of your cell phone.

Allows you to check the number that "On No Reply" calls are diverted to

Allows you to check the number that "Divert If Unreachable (no service)" calls are diverted to

Allows you to check the number that "On Busy Calls" are diverted to

Phone code that removes operator logo on 3310 & 3330

Reset phone timers and game scores

Displays the SIM Clock status, if your phone supports this power saving feature "SIM Clock Stop Allowed", it means you will get the best standby time possible

Manufactures code

Restore factory settings

Software version for the nokia 8110

Displays - 1.Serial Number, 2.Date Made, 3.Purchase Date, 4.Date of last repair (0000 for no repairs), 5.Transfer User Data. To exit this mode you need to switch your phone off then on again

Deactivate the PWM-Mem

Turn on "All Calls" diverting to the phone number entered

Turn on "No Reply" diverting to the phone number entered

Turn on "On Busy" diverting to the phone number entered

This is the default security code
press and hold # Lets you switch between lines

CCNA Test Questions Cisco Certified Network Associates

CCNA Sample Test Questions
*Answers at the bottom

1) Which of the following protocols use "Hello" packets?

2) How to enable a Banner on a Cisco Router ?
A) Router(Config-if)# banner motd #
B) Router(Config)# banner motd #
C) Router(Config)# motd banner motd #
D) Router(Config-if)# motd banner #

3) How many hosts and subnets are possible if you have an IP of with a
subnet mask of 7 bits?
A) 510 hosts and 126 subnets
B) 512 hosts and 128 subnets
C) 126 subnets and 510 hosts
D) 128 subnets and 512 hosts

4) What's the default subnet mask for a Class C IP adresses?

5) Which encapsulation must be used to enable Ethernet_II frame type on your Ethernet

6) Which IP-class provides the least number of Hosts?
A) Class A
B) Class B
C) Class C
D) Class D

7) How to define access-list commands ?
A) Router(config-if)# access-list 1 permit
B) Router(config) # access-list 1 permit
C) Router(config-if)# access-list 1 permit
D) Router(config) # access-list 1 permit

8) Which of the following solutions prevent routing loops?
A) Split Horizon
B) Poison Reverse
C) Hold-down Timers
D) Triggered Updates

9) Which of the following is a valid extended IP access list?
A) access-list 101 permit ip host any eq 80
B) access-list 101 permit ip host any eq www
C) access-list 101 permit tcp host any eq 80
D) access-list 101 permit icmp host any eq www

10) Which of the following is true about IP RIP based networks?
A) The default update time is 30 seconds.
B) The default update time is 90 seconds.
C) Only changes to the routing tables are sent during updates.
D) Complete routing table are sent during updates.

11) How do you apply the access group command?
A) Router(config) # access-list 1 out
B) Router(config-if) # access-listp 1 out
C) Router(config) # access-group 1 out
D) Router(config-if) # access-group 1 out

12) What are the access-list ranges of IP (standard and extended)?
A) 1-99 and 100-199
B) 1-99 and 900-999
C) 100-199 and 800-899
D) 800-899 and 900-999

13) Which are true regarding VLANs?
A) VLANs have the same collision domain
B) VLANs have the same broadcast domain
C) VLANs are less secure compared to switch or hub networks.
D) VLANs use layer 2 switching which is a substitute for routing technology which uses

14) Which of the following statements are true about EIGRP route summarization?
A) EIGRP provides summarization of routes at classful boundaries by default.
B) For summarizing routes at an arbitrary boundary, one need to disable auto
summarization, using “no auto-summary” command.
C) Manual summarization in EIGRP network takes place on any interface in the network.
D) For specifying a summary route manually, you must specify the metrics.

15) How many access-lists are possible on an interface per protocol ?
A) There can be only one access list in and one for out per router.
B) There can be only one access list for in and one for out on each interface per protocol.
C) There can be only one access list per router.
D) There can be only one access list for each interface per protocol.

16) What does the ISDN protocol Q define ?
A) Concepts, terminology and services
B) Existing telephone network
C) Switching and signaling
D) Quality of Services

17) You have a network ID of You need to divide it into multiple subnets
with at least 500 hosts per each subnet. Which subnet mask should you use so that you
will be able to divide the network into maximum number of subnets?

18) What switching type has the lowest latency?
A) Store and forward
B) Cut-through
C) Split horizon
D) Fragment-free

19) What comprises an ISDN BRI line?
A) Two 64 KBPS B channels and one 4 KBPS D channel
B) 24 B channels and one 64 KBPS D channel
C) Two 64 KBPS B channels and one 16 KBPS D channel
D) One 64 KBPS B channels and one 16 KBPS D channel

20) Where is the fully functional IOS stored?
A) Flash

Answer Key
1)A, 2)B, 3)C, 4)C, 5)B, 6)C, 7)D, 8)A,B,C,D 9)C, 10)A,D 11)D, 12)A, 13)B, 14)A,B,C
15)B, 16)C 17)D, 18)B, 19)C, 20)A

Introduction to Computers Basic Computer

Introduction to Computers

A World of Computers
Computers are everywhere; at work, at home and at school. Many of our daily
activities involve the use of computer. While some computers sit on top of a desk or on floor,
mobile computers and mobile devices are small enough to carry. Mobile devices, such as
many cell phones, often are classified as computers.
Computers are often used for the following purposes:-

1. Communication:-
Computers are a primary means of local and global communication for billion of
people. Consumers use computers to correspond with business, employees with other
employees and customers, students with classmates and teachers, and family members
with other family members. In addition to sending text based messages, people use
computers to share pictures, drawings, music, etc.
2. Information:-
Through computers, society has instant access to information from around the globe.
All sort of news, weather report, sports score, maps, job listings, airline schedules, telephone
directory, and a lot of educational material are available on the internet. We can access
million of information through computers from anywhere in the world.
3. At Home:-
At home people use computers for following two major purposes:-
(i) Household Management:-
At Home people use computers to manage schedules, balance checkbooks, pay bills,
transfer funds or buy and sell stocks
(ii) Entertainment:-
People Spend hours of leisure time using a computer, they play games, listen to
music or radio broadcast, watch videos, read books, retouch photos and plan vacation.
4. At Workplace:-
At workplace, employees use computers to create correspondence such as e-mails
messages, memos, and letters; calculate payroll; track inventory; and generate invoices.
Some weather forecasting agencies use computers to perform complex mathematical
5. At School:-
At School, teachers use computers to assist with classroom instructions. Students
complete assignments and conduct research on computers in lab rooms. In some countries
students instead of attending a class on campus take the entire classes directly from home
using a computer.
6. On the Road:-
On the road, mobile computers assist people to find their way using maps some
vehicles include navigation systems that provide direction, call for emergency services, and
track the vehicle if stolen.
Computer Literacy
Having a current knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses is known
as Computer Literacy, It is also known as Digital Literacy.
As Technology continues to advance, computers are becoming more a part of every
day life. So, many people believe that computer literacy is vital to success in today’s world.
The requirements that determine computer literacy change as technology changes.
What is a Computer?
Definition of a Computer:-
A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored
in its own memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules,
produce results, and stores the results for future use.
Data and Information:-
Data is a collection of unprocessed items or raw factors.
A lot of data when processed, conveys meaning and becomes useful to people is
called information.
A Computer System:-
An organized combinations of people, hardware, software, that collect, transform
(processes), store, presents, and disseminates (transmits) information to the users is called
a Computer System.
Components of Computer System:-
A Computer System consists of following components:-
1. Hardware
2. Software
3. People
4. Information
5. Procedures
1. Hardware:-
A Computer contains many electric, electronic, and mechanical components known
as Hardware.
Hardware includes:-
i. Input Devices
ii. Output Devices
iii. Processing Devices
iv. A System Unit
v. Storage Devices
vi. Communications Devices
i. Input Devices:-
An input device is any hardware component that allows you to enter data and
instructions into a computer.
Following are the six of the most widely used input devices:-
➢ Keyboard
➢ Mouse
➢ Microphone
➢ Scanner
➢ Digital Camera
➢ Web Cam
A computer keyboard contains keys that we press to enter data into the computer.
A mouse is a small handheld device. With the help of a mouse we can control the
movement of a small symbol on the screen, called pointer, and make selections from the
A microphone allows us to send voice data over to the computer.
A scanner convert printed material (such as plain text and pictures) into a form that
can be used by the computer.
Digital Camera:-
With a digital camera, we can take pictures and then transfer them to the computer.
Web Cam:-
A web cam is a video camera that allows us to create movies and take still pictures
ii. Output Devices:-
An output device is any hardware component that conveys information to one or
more people.
Four Commonly Used Output Devices are:-
➢ Printer
➢ Monitor
➢ Speaker
➢ Portable Media Player
A printer is an output device that produces text and graphics on a physical medium
such as paper.
A monitor displays texts, graphics, and videos on a screen.
Speakers allow us to hear music, voices and other audio.
Portable Media Player:-
We can transfer audio, video, and digital images from a computer to a portable media
player and then listen to the audio, watch the video, or view the image on the media player.
iii. Processing Devices:-
The Devices that helps in processing input (given data) to result in a specific output
(processed data/information).
Examples of the Processing Devices are:-
➢ Central Processing Unit (CPU)
➢ Primary Memory
Central Processing Unit (CPU):-
that are done by the computer.
Primary Memory:-
The role of the primary memory in processing is to store the instruction temporarily
i.e. only for the time being for which it is used, and then delete them after they have been
iv. System Unit:-
A system unit is a case that contains the electronic components of the computer that
are used to process data.
The circuitry of the system unit usually is part of or is connected to a circuit board
called the motherboard.
Main Components of Motherboard:-
The two main components of a motherboard are:
(i) Processor
(ii) Memory
(i) Processor:-
The processor is an electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic
instruction that operate the computer.
(ii) Memory:-
Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be
executed and data needed by those instructions.
There are two types of Memories:-
➢ Primary Memory
➢ Secondary Memory
Primary Memory:-
The type of memory that keeps data/instructions temporarily is called Primary
Secondary Memory:-
The type of memory that store data and instructions permanently for future use is
called Secondary Memory.
v. Storage Devices:-
Storage holds data, instructions, and information for future use.
Examples of storage devices are:-
➢ USB Flash Drive
➢ Hard Disk
➢ Compact Disks (CDs and DVDs)
USB Flash Drive:-
A USB Flash drive is a storage device that is small and lightweight enough to be
transported on a keychain or in a pocket.
· An Average USB Flash drive can hold about 2 Billion characters.
Hard Disk:-
Hard Disk is another storage device that is enclosed in an airtight sealed case.
· Hard Disks are either portable or non-portable (internally connected)
· An average hard disk can hold about 320 billion characters.
Compact Discs:-
Compact disks are flat, round shaped, portable metal discs. There are two types to
compact discs CDs and DVDs.
· A CD can hold about 650 million to 1 Billion characters.
· A DVD can hold about 17 Billion characters.
vi. Communication Devices:-
A communication Device is a hardware that enables a computer to send and receive
data, instruction, and information to and from one or more computers.
Most commonly used communication devices are:-
➢ Modem
➢ Cables
Modem is a widely used and most common communication device that coverts digital
signal to analogue and analogue signal to digital.
Cables are the communication devices through which data passes in form of electric
or light (in case of optical fibers) signals.
2. Software:-
Computer software, also called program, consists of a series of instructions that tells
the computer what to do and how to do it.
User Interface (UI):-
The user interface determines how we enter data and how information is displayed
the screen. We interact with the software using it user interface.
Graphical User Interface (GUI):-
In graphical user interface we interact with the software using text, graphics, and
visual images such as icons.
➢ Icon: An icon is a miniature image that represents a program, an instruction, or some
other object.
Types of Software:-
There are two categories of software:-
1. System Software
2. Application Software
1. System Software:-
System Software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operation of
the computer and its devices.
➢ System software servers as the interface between the user, the application software,
and the computer’s hardware.
There are two types of System Software:-
(i) Operating System
(ii) Utility Software
(i) Operating System:-
An operating system is a set of programs that coordinates all the activities among
computer hardware devices.
➢ It provides a means for users to communicate with the computer and other software.
➢ Examples of operating systems are Windows XP, Windows Vista (two of Microsoft’s
operating systems), or Mac OS X (Apple’s operating system).
(ii) Utility Software:-
A utility program allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to
managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.
➢ For example, we can use a utility program to transfer digital photos to a CD or DVD.
➢ Most operating systems include several utility programs for managing disk drives,
printers, and other devices and media.
2. Application Software:-
Application Software consists of programs designed to make users more productive
and/or assist them with personal tasks.
➢ Web Browser is widely used application software that allows users to access web
➢ Other popular application software includes word processing software, spreadsheet
software, database software, and presentation graphic software.
3. People
People (from the prospective of computer system) are those human beings that are
directly and/or indirectly involved in the usage of computer and computer applications.
➢ People can be in general said to be Users.
There are five major categories of Peoples/Users:-
1. Home Users
2. Small Office/Home Office Users
3. Mobile Users
4. Large Business Users
5. Power Users
1. Home Users:-
Home users use computer for different purposes that includes budgeting and
personal finance management, Web access, communications, and entertainment.
➢ Home Users usually use a Desktop Computer
2. Small Office/Home Office Users:-
Small Office/Home Office users include any company with fewer than 50 employees,
as well as the self-employed who work for home.
➢ Small Office includes local law practices, accounting firms, travel agencies, and
➢ Small Office Users usually use a Desktop Computer or even a small network of
computers consisted on a few computers.
3. Mobile Users:-
Mobile Users are the ones that work on a computer while away from home.
➢ Mobile Users usually use Notebook Computer, Tablet PC; Internet enabled PDA,
Laptop Computer, or a Smart Phone.
➢ Examples of mobile users are sale representatives, real estate agents, insurance
agents, meter readers, journalists, consultants, students.
4. Power Users:-
Power Users are the technical people who use powerful computers.
➢ Examples of Power Users include engineers, scientists, architects, desktop publishers,
and graphic publishers.
➢ Power User use industrial-type Software.
➢ Power Users use Super-Computers, Main-Frame Computers or Servers.
5. Large Business Computers:-
A large business has a hundreds or thousands of employee or customers that work in
or do business with offices across a region, the country, or the world. Each employee or
customer who uses a computer in the large business is a large business user.
➢ Enterprise Computing: Many large business companies use the words, Enterprise
Computing, to refer to the huge network of computers that meet their divers
computing needs.
➢ Large Business Users use Servers or Mainframe Computers.
4. Information:-
The Processed form of data is known as information
Information can be in the form of either of the following:-
➢ Text
➢ Audio
➢ Video
➢ Graphics
➢ Animations
The information stored inform of words is called text.
Audio includes music, speech, or any other sound.
Video consists of full-motion images that are played back at various speeds.
A Graphic, or graphical image is a digital representation of non-text information such
as drawing chart or photo
One or more still images are combined and played in such a way that they seem to
be moving form an Animation.
5. Procedures:-
The rules, regulation, guidelines, that run a computer system are known as
Following are the three basic types of procedures:-
➢ Operational Procedures
➢ Backup Procedures
➢ Security Procedures
Operational Procedures:-
Operational Procedures are used to run the system.
Backup Procedures:-
Backup Procedures are used to restore the system if the system crashes down.
Security Procedures:-
Security Procedures are used to prevent the computers from an outside attack.
Categories of Computers
Following are the main categories of Computers:-
1. Personal Computers
2. Mobile Devices/Mobile Computers
3. Mainframes
4. Super-Computers
1. Personal Computers:-
A Personal Computer is a Computer that can perform all of its input, processing,
output, and storage activities by itself.
➢ A Personal Computer is designed specially for the use of a single person.
➢ Two Popular styles of personal computers are the PC (which refers to any computer
based on the IBM Personal Computer design.) and the Apple (which refers to the
Apple Macintosh Personal Computer.
There are two types of personal computers:-
(i) Desktop Computer
(ii) Notebook Computer
(i) Desktop Computer:-
A Desktop Computer is the one that is designed such that the system unit, input
devices, output devices, and any other devices fit entirely on or under the table or a desk.
(ii) Notebook Computer:-
A Notebook Computer is a portable computer that contains all the features of a
desktop computer.
Two of the most common example of
➢ Laptop
➢ Tablet PC
Laptop Computer:-
A Laptop Computer is specially designed computer that can fit on a user’s lap.
Tablet PC:-
A Tablet PC is a special type of Notebook Computer that allows users to write or to
draw on the screen using a digital pen.
2. Mobile Computer:-
Mobile Computers are designed such that they can be carried anywhere by the user.
➢ Mobile Computers are designed for travelling people.
Three Popular Types of Mobile Computers are:-
(i) Handheld Computer
(ii) PDA (Personal Digital Assistant)
(iii) Smartphone
(i) Handheld Computer:-
A Handheld Computer is designed such that it fits in one’s hand and be carried in
one’s pocket.
➢ Ultra Mobile PCs: Handheld Computers are sometimes referred to Ultra Mobile PCs.
➢ Many Handheld Computers communicate with other devices wirelessly.
(ii) PDA (Personal Digital Assistant):-
A PDA is a hand held device that provides personal organized functions such as a
calendar, an appointment book, an address book, a calculator, and a notepad.
(iii) Smart Phone:-
A Smart Phone is an internet enabled phone that usually provides PDA capabilities.
➢ Smart Phone provides convenience one-handed operation.
3. Servers:-
A server controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network
and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information.
➢ Servers can support from two to several thousand computers connected at the same
4. Mainframes:-
A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful computer that can hold thousands of
connected users simultaneously.
➢ Mainframes can also act as servers in some networks.
➢ Most major corporations use mainframes for business activities.
➢ Mainframes store tremendous amount of data.
5. Super Computers:-
A Super Computer is the fastest, most powerful computer – and the most expensive.
➢ Super Computer is capable of processing more than 135 trillion instruction in a
➢ Weight of a Super Computer exceeds 100 tons
➢ Super Computers are used when complex mathematical calculations are required
➢ Super Computers are usually use in medicine, aerospace, automotive design, online
banking, weather forecasting, and nuclear energy power plant.

Darul Qaza set up in Malakand

Darul Qaza set up in Malakand
By: Nation Pakistan
PESHAWAR - The ANP-led NWFP government Saturday announced the establishment of Darul Qaza and asked the TNSM chief Sufi Muhammad to fulfil his part of the peace agreement. The announcement was made by the provincial information minister Mian Iftikhar Hussain during a news conference here Saturday evening. “The government announces the establishment of Darul Qaza in Malakand Division,” said Mian Iftikhar, adding that all Qazis, having good character and appearance, would be appointed in line with Sharia. “The Darul Qaza will be a two-member bench comprising Ziauddin and Mueenuddin, whose names have also been notified,” announced Mian Iftikhar Hussain. Now that the final step in enforcement of Nizam-e-Adl has been taken, there is no justification for the other side to continue display of arms or challenge the writ of the government. Therefore, we request them to respect the law and lay down arms,” said the minister. He warned that the government would use the ‘second option’ if the other party continued armed patrolling, display of arms or posing threat to the lives and property of peaceful citizens. “Now that the government has fulfilled the part of its promise by practically implementing Nizm-e-Adl, Maulana Sufi Muhammad should also abide by his pledge of asking the militants to lay down arms and announce those as traitors who refuse to disarm and indulge in violence,” he maintained. He reminded Maulana Sufi Muhammad his announcement during a public meeting in Maidan, Dir Lower district, that Namaz-e-Janaza of those sticking to their arms after the implementation of Nizam-e-Adl would not be offered. He said Niza-e-Adl Regulations had been enforced in the whole of Malakand Division, saying that police stations all across Malakand Division and two Qazis would be appointed at each police station. On the same pattern, two Qazis would be appointed each at tehsil level and those Qazis would be fully authorized to decide cases under the Nizam-e-Adlsaid the minister adding that the Qazis would have the authority to award up to seven years imprisonment both in criminal and civil nature cases.
He said decisions given by the courts on tehsil level could be challenged in the Darul Qaza, which is the final authority in decision-making. To a question, he said after the practical implementation of the Nizam-e-Adl, the government had fulfilled all the promises made with Sufi Muhammad and people of Malakand leaving no room for the other party to stick to their guns or pose threat to the lives and property of the people. “Any one who continued to challenge the writ of the state would be liable to action and the government would use all means to ensure its writ and security of the lives and property of the law-abiding citizens,” said the minister.He said the government had recorded 190 violations of the peace deal since its signing on February 15. This was why the government was struggling to finalise the appointment of Qazis and establishment of Darul Qaza to end a pretext to violate the peace deal again and again. He thanked the President, Prime Minister, members of the National Assembly and all the political parties and leaders for extending support to the Nizam-e-Adl. He said the credit for this landmark victory had gone to all those parties and leaders who extended support to the NWFP government.